澳洲心理学作业代写 解释人格

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为了达到这篇文章的主要目的,有必要解释什么是人格。人格本身被定义为决定感觉、思想和行为的人际过程(Burger 2018)。然而,这对不同的心理学家意味着不同的事情。根据西格蒙德·弗洛伊德的观点,人格是一种复杂的模式,它受到人们将童年经历的最终结果记在心里的方式的影响。社会学习心理学家反对任何人格概念,因为他们关注的是由个人在环境中的经验所决定的行为的科学指导下的可观察到的变化。(格拉斯曼和哈达2013)。行为主义方法假设行为只能通过操作和经典条件作用从外部学习(Mazur 2015)。B。作为操作性条件作用的先驱者,F认为这些行为可以由积极和消极的后果来塑造,这意味着一种行为被重复或不重复的可能性(Martin and Fabes 2008)。Pritchard(2005)明确指出,如果孩子表现良好,就给他一些奖励,比如糖果,更有可能鼓励他再次重复渴望的行为。关于这种方法,很多家长采用它作为原则来塑造儿童的行为通过食物奖励,桦树et al(1980)澄清,使用食物作为奖励通过父母在塑造行为,比如“如果你表现好,你可以有一个巧克力”可以影响孩子在今后的生活中。Puhl和Schwartz(2003)进行了一项研究,他们发现,大多数有饮食失调(如暴饮暴食和饮食控制)的成年人报告了他们对父母在童年时期使用食物控制某些行为的记忆。操作性条件反射(operant conditioning)的创始人伊万·巴甫洛夫(Ivan Pavlov)阐明,行为也可以通过将先前的两种刺激(即条件性刺激和非条件性刺激)之间的经验联系起来而获得(Mcsweeney和Murphy, 2014年)。例如,恐怖症等不正常的行为可以通过经典条件反射习得。例如,当一只狗被认为是一种中性刺激(不会引起恐惧的东西)时,它与非条件刺激(如咬人)的联想可能会发展成恐惧,并导致对结果的条件反应。例如,一个孩子看到狗咬自己的亲人,长大后可能会对狗产生恐惧。

澳洲心理学作业代写 解释人格

In order to reach the main aim of this essay, it is thus necessary to explain what personality is. Personality itself is defined as interpersonal processes that determines feelings, thoughts and behaviour (Burger 2018). However, it means different things to different psychologist. According to Sigmund Freud, personality is a pattern of complexes which are influenced by the ways in which people carry the end results of their childhood experiences in the mind (. Social learning psychologist instead reject any concept of personality as they focus on scientific directed observable changes in behaviours that are determined by individuals experience in the environment. (Glassman and Hadad 2013). The behaviourism approach posit that behaviours can be solely learnt externally via operant and classical conditioning (Mazur 2015). B.F Sinner as the pioneer of the operant conditioning suggested that these behaviours can be shaped by positive and negative consequences meaning the probability that a behaviour will be repeated or not (Martin and Fabes 2008). Pritchard (2005) specified that providing a child with a reward such as a sweet as a result of a good behaviour would more likely encourage the child to repeat thus desired behaviour again. In regard to this approach, many parents adopted it as a principle to shape children’s behaviour through food reward .However, Birch et al (1980) clarified that the use of food as a reward adopted by parents in shaping behaviour such as “if you behave well, you can have a chocolate” can have consequences on children in later life. Puhl and Schwartz (2003) conducted a study in which they found that majority of adults with eating disorders such as binge eating, and dietary restraint reported their recollection of their parents using food to control certain behaviour in their childhood. Ivan Pavlov as the founder of operant conditioning clarified that behaviour can also be acquired via an association of a previous experience between two stimuli namely conditioned and unconditioned (Mcsweeney and Murphy 2014). For example, abnormal behaviour such as phobia can be acquired through classical conditioning. For instance, when a dog considered as a neutral stimulus (something that does not cause fear) associates with unconditioned stimuli such as (biting) may develop into fear and result a condition response to result. An example, may occur in a situation whereby a child who witnesses a dog biting a close member, might grow up having phobias of dog throughout his or her life.

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