澳洲心理学论文代写:精神分析纲要

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在《精神分析纲要》中,弗洛伊德(1949)阐述了精神分析理论所依据的一般原则。佛洛伊德一开始就解释了精神装置的三种力量。这三个分别是本我、自我和超我。本我具有无意识的特质,它包含了遗传的、出生时就存在的一切,以及本能(弗洛伊德,1949年第14页)。自我具有自觉品质的能力,负责控制本我和本能的需求,是本我与外部生命之间的纽带。自我通过适应或逃避来回应刺激,调节活动,并试图获得快乐,避免生活中不愉快的方面(弗洛伊德,第14-15页)。(弗洛伊德“超我”的需求是由“我”控制的。弗洛伊德认为,本能是一切行为的根本原因。有两种基本本能厄洛斯(Eros)(爱)和萨纳托斯(Thanatos)(死亡)。根据佛洛伊德的观点,爱欲本能的目的是建立和维护关系之间的统一。Thanatos则完全相反,其目的是通过摧毁联系和统一来破坏它们(Freud, 1949)。这两种本能要么通过排斥相互作用,要么通过吸引结合在一起共同工作。

澳洲心理学论文代写:精神分析纲要

In An Outline of Psychoanalysis, Freud (1949) explains the general principles on which the psychoanalysis theory is based upon. Freud started off with an explanation of three forces of the psychical apparatus. The three are the id, ego, and superego. The id has unconscious quality that contains everything that were inherited and that were present at birth, and the instincts (Freud, 1949 p.14). The ego has the ability of conscious quality and is responsible for controlling the demands of the id and instincts, and serves as a link between the id and the external life. The ego responds to stimulation by either adaptation or flight, regulates activity, and tries to achieve pleasure and avoid the unpleasurable aspects of life (Freud, p. 14-15). The superego, is responsible for the satisfactions and represented by the influence of others (Freud, 1949, p.15) The superego’s demands are managed by the id.Freud explains that our instincts are the ultimate cause of every behavior. There are two basic instincts the Eros (love) and the Thanatos (death). The Eros instincts purpose according to Freud was to establish and preserve unity between relationships. Thanatos is completely the opposite, the purpose is to undo connections and unity by destroying them (Freud, 1949, p.19). These two instincts either operate against one another through repulsion or combine and work together via attraction.

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